Introduction :  

 Varicose veins are basically twisted and dilated swollen veins. These veins help to take the blood back to the heart for filtration. It is superficial veins which are located near skin’s surface. These are mostly found in our legs. Varicose veins are also present in another part of the human body i.e Hummoride (  varicose veins in rectum ). About 3rd of our population suffered with lower limb varicose vein issue. The  varicose veins are swollen because sitting and walking for long time increase pressure of blood in our  lower body veins as shown in figure :  

Definition :  

  • “ Varicose veins are defined as elongated and torturous superficial veins result of  venous Hypertension “ 
  • It occur due to permanent loss of valvular mechanism.  


There are different types of various veins: 

  • Spider veins: like a network of thin red lines of blood vessels spread on the surface of the skin. Reticulum varicose veins: they spread like a mesh and cover a wide area on the skin. 

Causes :  

There are so many causes of suffering from varicose vein and these are explain below. 1. Its caused due to standing for long time period 

  1. Being overweight. 
  2. Genetic history of your family. 
  3. Due to deficiency of Vitamin K. 
  4. Increasing blood pressure in veins. 
  5. Old age: because at old age you are not able to stand or walk so sitting for long time period can cause varicose veins. 
  6. A tumour. 
  7. Constipation. 

These are causes as well there are some risks that cause varicose veins too. 

  • Sex: women are more likely to develop this condition… 
  • Pregnancy: because the volume of blood increases.  

Varicose veins can cause ulcers and discolouration.  


  • Heavy and Uncomfortable legs. 
  • Aching in the legs. 
  • Muscles cramping. 
  • Unbearable pain in the legs after sitting or walking for a long time. 
  • Swollen lower legs. 
  • Colour around varicose vein change. 
  • A dry and thin layer of skin is created on the varicose veins part. 
  • Feel legs burning. 
  • Swollen feet and ankles.

Treatment :  

These varicose veins are treated by surgeries and therapies. 

Treatment through surgeries:  

  1. Sclerotherapy. 
  2. Legitation. 
  3. Vein stripping. 
  4. Laser treatment. 
  5. By using laser or radiofrequency energy. 

Treatment through therapy: 

  • Compression therapy: In this therapy we apply a particular pressure on leg to  remove swollen and discomforts.  


Exercise regularly. 

Do dieting for losing weight if you are overweight or suffering from obesity. Avoid sitting or standing for a long time period. 

Also avoid wearing tight-fitted clothes. 

Don’t wear high heels. 

Use less salt to prevent yourself from swelling caused by water retention. Food used for prevention: 

  1. Oats 
  2. Apples. 

iii. Carrots. 

  1. Flaxseeds. 
  2. Berries etc  

Are used for avoiding varicose veins and also help to make your veins healthy.


Clinical Knowledge Summaries (CKS) 

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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