1. Introduction to Respiratory Illness
  2. Methods of Respiratory Illness 
  3. Conclusion of Respiratory Illness
  4. Keywords of Respiratory Illness
  5. What are Respiratory Diseases?
  6. Diseases of the Respiratory System
  7. Symptoms of the Respiratory System
  8. Treatments for Respiratory Illness
  9. In Chronic Phase Include Respiratory Illness
  10. Prevention of Respiratory Illness

1. Introduction to Respiratory Illness

About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during the Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88). After being spend of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases.

2. Methods of Respiratory Illness 

For gathering information, we have used electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI,  Iranmedex, and Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles were associated with respiratory problems, and among them, 50 articles related to the prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed.

 3. Conclusion of Respiratory Illness

Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve the following outcomes.

4. Keywords of Respiratory Illness

Chemical warfare, lung injury, mustard gas. According to mustard gas is able to penetrate leather and ordinary clothes in a few min, but rubber and plastic material may provide protection for several hours, of course, sulfur mustard can penetrate from ordinary and plastic makes into the body. 

  • Since mustard gas is heavier than air, during the attacks it should be better if we take a height of at least 10 meters from the site of the bomb landing
  • All contaminated clothing should be removed from the body, as soon as possible and destroyed. Sulfur mustard may persist in liquid from contaminated clothing and equipment for many hours or days and affects the biological tissues. 
  • Washing the body as soon as possible with safe and clean water. Solider should avoid washing their hands, face, and body with water that may b contaminated with the poison.
  • Preventing people from entering the contaminated area. Because the toxin is able to persist in soil for 10 years. Sulfur mustard can be found in the place of the battle, in concentration from 1 to  25 milligrams per cubic meter. 
  • Using the standard protective equipment such as masques and clothes 
  • For decontamination of the environment, calcium hypochlorite and stilbestrol as a powder and permanent can be used.

5. What are Respiratory Diseases?

Respiratory Disease is any of the diseases and disorders of the airway and the lung that affect human respiration.

6. Diseases of the Respiratory System

The disease of the respiratory system may affect any of the structures and organs that have to do with breathing, including the nasal cavity, the pharynx, the lyranx the trachea the bronchi and bronchioles, the tissue of the lungs and the respiratory muscles of the cell.

The respiratory tract is the site of an exceptionally large range of disorders for three main reasons:

  • It is exposed to the environment and therefore may be affected by inhaling organisms, dust, or  gases 
  • It possesses a large network of capillaries through which the entry output of the heart has to pass, which means that disease that affects the small blood vessels are likely to affect the lungs.

The article discusses the signs and symptoms of the respiratory system. 

The natural defense of the human respiratory system is the human method of detecting. 

7. Symptoms of the Respiratory System

The article discusses the signs and symptoms of respiratory Disease the natural defense of the human respiratory system. 

  • A cough may bring up mucus 
  • Sneezing 
  • A stuffy or runny nose 
  • A sore throat 
  • Headache 
  • Muscle aches 
  • Breathlessness, tight chest, or wheezing 
  • A high temperature 
  • Feeling generally unwell

8. Treatments for Respiratory Illness

There is no curative treatment for sulfur mustard-induced lung injuries, but some valuables experienced measured for prevention and palliative treatment are available. Some unusual measures in the acute phase include:

  • Symptomatic management 
  • Oxygen supplement 
  • Tracheostomy
  • Moist air 
  • Respiratory physical therapy

9. In Chronic Phase Include Respiratory Illness

  • Periodic clinical examination 
  • Administration of inhaled 

Periodic clinical examination, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonist, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long terms oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, lasers therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents.

10. Prevention of Respiratory Illness

Some recommendations for the prevention of the adverse effects of mustard gas include the  following points 

  • Military training on how to deal with chemical terrorists, especially with mustard gas. Training the first necessary prevention measure in chemical wars 
  • Training on how to transport victims to medical care units with moist area 
  • Using plastic clothing with a fine texture if possible. 

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