O Mental Retardation
Mental retardation means a low level of intelligence and skills required for everyday tasks. It develops in that whoes brain do not function properly within the normal range.
Mental retardation affect two main areas.
These are as follow :
- 1. Intelligence Quotient 2. Adaptive behaviour
Intettigence Quotient :
It is measured by a standerdized test. It is defined as the ability to think, learn and slove problems. The normal IQ of person is 100 and below 70 or 75 is considered disable.
Adaptive behaviour :
In this area necessary life skills include such as socialization, communication and taking care of oneself. The person suffering from mental retardation will have difficulty functioning in everyday life as well as learning skills. Some intellectual disabilities include Down syndrom and Cerebral palsy.
Level of Mental Retardation
1. Mild mental retardation
2. Moderate mental retardation
3.Sever mental retardation
1. Mild Mental retardation They are known as “morons“. Their IQ is 51 – 70 and mental age between 7 to 12 years. They are slow learner and perform poorly.
- 2. Moderate Mental Retardation
They are known as “imbeciles“. Their IQ is 26–50 and their mental age between 3 to 6 years. They are an extremely slow learner. They are not capable of supporting themselves.
3.Sever Mental Retardation
They are known as “idiots“. Their IQ is 0–25 and mental age between 2 years or may be less. They can‘t protect themselves from danger.
O Symptoms Symptoms of Mental Retardation vary according to level. The common ones include:
- 1. Aggression 2. Dependency 3. Depression 4. Attention–seeking 5. Impulsiveness 6. Withdrawal from social activities 7. Short attention span 8. Frustration 9. Seizures 10. Having problem with reading and
writing 11. Epilepsy 12. Physical disability Need for medical advises: when your child is facing the symptom as above or you may notice any change in behaviour, emotional state and physical abnormalities. Then there is a need to seek medical advice. Consult the doctor as soon
The causes can be divided into three groups:
- 1. Prenatal factors 2. Natal factors
- 3. Postnatal factors 1. Prenatal factors: It may include hereditary and acquired factors which are as follow :
. Down‘s syndroms
. Malnutrition of mother
. X–ray and radiations
- 2. Natal factors: It may include as:
. Premature birth
. Prolong labour
. Brain injury due to instrumental birth
- 3. Postnatal factors: It may include :
. Head injury
. Infection of brain, such as encephalitis
The treatment of mentally retard patient depend upon its level. If patient experience mild mental retardation then the treatment is intervention and medication to manage the symptoms. Medication improve the symptoms but can‘t cure the causes. Some commonly prescribed medication are as follow :
- 1. Antidepressants 2. Anti–anxiety 3. Mood – stablizing drugs 4. Anti psychotic drugs 5. Anti epileptic drugs
Another option is psychotherapy, in which person meet with psychotherapist and discuss their mood, feeling, behaviour and personal condition. Therapist can reduce your stress and teach you how to handle the problems in effective manner. Some othee therapy include physical therapy, speech therapy and rehabilitation (for substance abuse).
O Support the Patient
Patient should be approuched in friendly manner. He should not disturbed when he did not want any body‘s presence. An attendant always in the room. Crowding around the patient should be avoided. The patient should not have access to any sharp things with which he may injure himself. Patient should be observed constantly to avoid any mishap. Reassure the patient to give him sense of security.
Ensure moderate eating. Avoid alcohol. Patient should be encouraged to pay attention on his/her personal appearance and habits. If possible try to motive him to carry out some responsibility and simple type of occupation. Avoid emotion strain. Encourage socialization so his mind may get diverted. Help patient to cimbat with fears. Try to make the patient feel as they are wanted. Educate the family and friends about the patient‘s condition