O Mental Retardation

Mental retardation means a low level of intelligence and skills required for everyday tasks. It develops in that whoes brain do not function properly within the normal range

Mental retardation affect two main areas

These are as follow

  1. 1. Intelligence Quotient 2. Adaptive behaviour 

   

Intettigence Quotient

It is measured by a standerdized test. It is defined as the ability to think, learn and slove problems. The normal IQ of person is 100 and below 70 or 75 is considered disable.

Adaptive behaviour

In this area necessary life skills include such as socialization, communication and taking care of oneself. The person suffering from mental retardation will have difficulty functioning in everyday life as well as learning skills. Some intellectual disabilities include Down syndrom and Cerebral palsy

Level of Mental Retardation

1. Mild mental retardation
2. Moderate mental retardation
3.Sever mental retardation
1. Mild Mental retardation They are known as morons. Their IQ is 51 70 and mental age between 7 to 12 years. They are slow learner and perform poorly

  1. 2. Moderate Mental Retardation 

    They are known as imbeciles. Their IQ is 2650 and their mental age between 3 to 6 years. They are an extremely slow learner. They are not capable of supporting themselves

3.Sever Mental Retardation

They are known as idiots. Their IQ is 025 and mental age between 2 years or may be less. They cant protect themselves from danger

O Symptoms Symptoms of Mental Retardation vary according to level. The common ones include

  1. 1. Aggression 2. Dependency 3. Depression 4. Attentionseeking 5. Impulsiveness 6. Withdrawal from social activities 7. Short attention span 8. Frustration 9. Seizures 10. Having problem with reading and 

writing 11. Epilepsy 12. Physical disability Need for medical advises: when your child is facing the symptom as above or you may notice any change in behaviour, emotional state and physical abnormalities. Then there is a need to seek medical advice. Consult the doctor as soon 

as possible

O Causes  

The causes can be divided into three groups

  1. 1. Prenatal factors 2. Natal factors 
  2. 3. Postnatal factors 1. Prenatal factors: It may include hereditary and acquired factors which are as follow

. Downs syndroms 

. Hydrocephaly 

. Malnutrition of mother 

. Xray and radiations 

  1. 2. Natal factors: It may include as

. Premature birth 

. Prolong labour 

. Brain injury due to instrumental birth 

  1. 3. Postnatal factors: It may include

. Head injury 

. Convulsion 

. Toxaemia 

. Infection of brain, such as encephalitis 

O Treatment 

The treatment of mentally retard patient depend upon its level. If patient experience mild mental retardation then the treatment is intervention and medication to manage the symptoms. Medication improve the symptoms but cant cure the causes. Some commonly prescribed medication are as follow

  1. 1. Antidepressants 2. Antianxiety 3. Mood stablizing drugs 4. Anti psychotic drugs 5. Anti epileptic drugs 

Another option is psychotherapy, in which person meet with psychotherapist and discuss their mood, feeling, behaviour and personal condition. Therapist can reduce your stress and teach you how to handle the problems in effective manner. Some othee therapy include physical therapy, speech therapy and rehabilitation (for substance abuse)

O Support the Patient 

Patient should be approuched in friendly manner. He should not disturbed when he did not want any bodys presence. An attendant always in the room. Crowding around the patient should be avoided. The patient should not have access to any sharp things with which he may injure himself. Patient should be observed constantly to avoid any mishap. Reassure the patient to give him sense of security

O Management 

Ensure moderate eating. Avoid alcohol. Patient should be encouraged to pay attention on his/her personal appearance and habits. If possible try to motive him to carry out some responsibility and simple type of occupation. Avoid emotion strain. Encourage socialization so his mind may get diverted. Help patient to cimbat with fears. Try to make the patient feel as they are wanted. Educate the family and friends about the patients condition

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