Cognitive issues refer to mental health illnesses that include memory loss and unable to concentrate in performing daily work. It can also cause a mental disturbance and occur at any age.
Types of cognitive disorders

  1. Dementia: It describes the state of the mind that contains memory loss. The memory loss can be normal, but when it starts affecting routine activities, it can be named dementia. It is commonly caused by damage to the brain tissues.
  2. Growth illness: Growth illness or neurological illness is a neurologically based disorder caused by improper brain development. This disease can also affect routine activities and lead to the inability to social interaction.
  3. Motor skills disorder: This type of cognitive disorder refers to a delay in movement and position, which can affect the aptitude level of an individual.
  4. Amnesia: This disorder is caused by brain injury and can lead to the permanent failure of memory. There is no specific treatment for amnesia, but there are certain ways to improve memory.

Causes: 
The causes of cognitive disease can vary from individual to individual. Among which, a few are as follows;

  • It can be caused by the hormonal change in the hormones in the womb. 
  • Some of the factors are caused by genetic reasons. 
  • Likewise, the absence of proper nutrients causes the cognitive disorder. 
  • Furthermore, the cognitive disorder can be triggered by physical harm such as injury or damage to the brain due to overuse of medicines, alcohol, or trauma.

Symptoms: Following are the possible indications of cognitive illnesses;

  • Puzzlement: It refers to difficulty thinking clearly and quickly as an ordinary individual can do.
  • Ataxia: Individuals with ataxia encounter immobility and balance caused by a lack of muscle coordination and control.
  • Loss of memory: When a person cannot remember moments of his life, it can be short-term memory loss or for a longer time.
  • Emotional cognitive problems: Emotional un-stabilization is the most common symptom of cognition illness in which an individual encounters outburst reactions.
  • Physical factors: It refers to the confused or dazed appearance of the sufferer. 
  • Identity confusion: It occurs when an individual doesn’t have a sense of independence caused by different factors such as stress, lifestyle changes, and difficulty in coping with the environment.
  • Impaired judgment: It is a medical condition in which an individual cannot make quality decisions regarding medical issues, environmental factors, and diet.

Diagnosis 
During the visit, the consultant may ask an individual to fully describe the medical condition and detailed information about the medical history of the patient and his family members. The medical history may include the present and the past illnesses the patient may have experienced. The doctor may also ask about the family history to examine the patient’s memory. Similarly, the doctor might advise the patient to have an MRI or a CT scan. Moreover, the doctor might also ask for a status test to examine the memory, attention, short period recall, and several other brain function tests being conducted.
Treatments 
There is no specific treatment for the cognitive illness; however, medications can be used to treat the disorder’s symptoms. The proper medication can be given only after examining symptoms and the patient’s conditions. Antidepressants are the extensively used medicine for this illness that can further stop memory damage. 
There are numerous side effects of medication used for a cognitive disorder, such as;

  • Sleepiness
  • Tiredness 
  • Stomach disorder 

Moreover, the medication overdose can lead to addiction to a particular medicine. It usually happens when a drug doesn’t affect the symptoms of cognitive illness, and the patient increases the dosage without taking the consultant’s advice. Therefore, you must avoid drug overuse as it can be life-threatening.
References

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